Georgia moves ahead with some reopenings despite plenty of misgivings.
Across Georgia, salons and barbershops and other businesses reopened Friday morning after Gov. Brian Kemp defied public opposition from the president, public health experts and some mayors in his state.
Lines started forming around 7 a.m. and snaked around some businesses. Mr. Kemp’s order generally allowed barbershops, nail salons, gyms, bowling alleys and tattoo parlors to reopen on Friday. Dine-in service at restaurants will be allowed to resume on Monday.
The move to reopen in Georgia on Friday, along with similar plans in Oklahoma and Alaska, is being closely scrutinized as other governors consider future steps for their own states.
Mayor Keisha Lance Bottoms of Atlanta urged people to stay home.
“Listen to the scientists,” Ms. Bottoms said Friday on ABC’s “Good Morning America.” “There is nothing essential about going to a bowling alley or getting a manicure in the middle of a pandemic.”
But on Auburn Avenue, a historic African-American commercial strip in Atlanta, a long line formed early Friday at a herbal and tonic bar that was set to open. A hair salon in the same center, though, remained closed.
In Georgia, government statistics show the state has recorded more than 21,800 virus cases and that at least 881 people have died.
The pain in Georgia has not been spread evenly. In rural Dougherty County, which includes Albany, officials have reported nearly 1,500 known cases and 109 deaths.
Authorities found that a funeral for a retired janitor that brought more than 200 people into a small memorial chapel in Albany, a city of 75,000 people and the county seat, was the source of the outbreak. Chatham County, which includes Savannah, and which has more than twice as many residents as Dougherty County, has 199 known cases and six deaths.
The most overall cases are concentrated in the Atlanta area. But the highest per capita rates are in the state’s southwest. In addition to Dougherty County, the situation has been notably bleak in Sumter, Lee, Mitchell, Early and Terrell Counties. Black Georgians make up a plurality of cases and deaths, even though they account for only about one-third of the state’s population.
In a series of tweets on Thursday night, Mr. Kemp said the state had been “successful in our efforts to protect Georgians and our state’s health care infrastructure.”
“Now, with favorable data and approval from state health officials, we are taking another measured step forward by opening shuttered businesses for limited operations,” he continued. “I know these hardworking Georgians will prioritize the safety of their employees and customers.”
Even as some hairstylists were readying work spaces for their first customers in weeks on Friday morning in Georgia, others said they would stay home, afraid of spreading the virus to clients.
In Atlanta, Lindsey Maxfield, 33, a hair stylist, said she was glad her workplace, Cameo Salon, would remain closed. “Having people come to the salon is ridiculous,” she said.
As businesses in Georgia first began to welcome customers, beaches had already started to reopen in Florida and retail stores reopened their doors in South Carolina.
But the loosening of restrictions in several states on Friday represents the first wider test of how the nation will inch toward a new future, where people may be able to book manicures by appointment only and newly reopened restaurants will serve only a few customers at a time.
Alaska on Friday lifted some restrictions for restaurants, retail stores and personal care services, like hair and nail salons. But some local governments and Native Alaskan tribal groups were pushing back. In Anchorage, the state’s largest city, the mayor said he had authority over reopening schedules and rules, and he planned to outline the city’s response on Friday.
In Oklahoma, salons and state parks were scheduled to open back up on Friday, followed by restaurants and houses of worship in May.
A number of other states, including Ohio, have discussed the possibility of a phased reopening starting as soon as early May. The state-by-state approach means that there is no one unified strategy for reopening the nation.
Some states are opening up salons and barbershops first. Others started with retail stores and kept salons closed. There is even confusion within each state, with questions about whether a governor’s decision to reopen trumped local orders to stay home.
But most everywhere, officials seemed to agree that a phased-in approach was needed. In Colorado, where a stay-at-home order is scheduled to expire on Sunday, Gov. Jared Polis described a new phase starting next week, in which doctors can begin doing elective medical procedures and retail businesses will be able to open for curbside pickup. But he said residents should still expect to maintain 60 to 65 percent physical distancing. “We still have work to do,” he said. “We are not through the woods yet.”
In Idaho, Gov. Brad Little outlined a detailed plan for reopening in four stages, starting with houses of worship in early May. The approach would ramp up reopening with restaurants, gyms and salons in late May, but keep large, recreational venues, like nightclubs and movie theaters, closed until at least late June.
The F.D.A. issued a warning against using anti-malaria drugs that Trump has touted.
The drugs hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine can cause dangerous abnormalities in heart rhythm in coronavirus patients, and should be used only in clinical trials or hospitals where patients can be closely monitored for heart problems, the Food and Drug Administration warned in a safety communication issued on Friday.
The F.D.A. is aware of reports of serious heart rhythm problems in patients with Covid-19 treated with hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine, often in combination with azithromycin” and other drugs that can disrupt heart rhythm, the agency said. The statement also noted that many people were getting outpatient prescriptions for the drugs in the hopes of preventing the infection or treating it themselves.
The warning is based on a review of adverse events reported from multiple sources, the agency said, adding: “These adverse events were reported from the hospital and outpatient settings for treating or preventing COVID-19, and included QT interval prolongation, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation, and in some cases death.”
There is no proof that hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine can help coronavirus patients. They are approved to treat malaria and the autoimmune diseases lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. But reports from France and China suggesting a benefit sparked interest in the drugs, even though the reports lacked the scientific controls needed to determine whether the drugs actually worked.
Mr. Trump has advocated their use repeatedly, sometimes combination with azithromycin, an antibiotic that is used to treat bacterial infections, not viral diseases. His repeated promotion of the use of the anti-malaria drugs is at odds with many of his top public health officials.
The U.S. official who led the federal agency involved in developing a coronavirus vaccine said he was removed from his post after he pressed for rigorous vetting of hydroxychloroquine, and that the administration had put “politics and cronyism ahead of science.”
With no proven treatments for the coronavirus, many hospitals have been using hydroxychloroquine, sometimes with azithromycin, in the hope that they might help.
Scientists have urged that the drugs be tested in controlled clinical trials to find out definitively whether they can fight the virus or quell overreactions by the immune system that can become life-threatening. Studies are underway.
Another report on Friday, from doctors in New York, adds to concerns about combining hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. In 84 patients receiving the drugs, electrocardiograms found a rhythm disruption called a prolonged QT interval a few days after the treatment began.
In nine cases the disorder was severe, reaching levels known to increase the risk of sudden death. None of the patients died from heart problems.Patients given the combination should be carefully monitored, especially if they have other chronic conditions and if they are also receiving other drugs known to affect heart rhythm, the doctors, from NYU Langone Health, said in a letter to the journal Nature Medicine.
In the past month, Congress has approved an astonishing $2.7 trillion in response to the pandemic. The latest measure, however, contained no money for state governments, and governors have stepped up their calls for federal assistance.
Republicans have resisted providing money to the states — what the Senate majority leader, Mitch McConnell of Kentucky, called “blue state bailouts” — even as local governments have been overwhelmed by an explosion of unemployment claims, with more than 26 million people losing their jobs in just five weeks.
At least three states — California, New York and Ohio — are expected to deplete their trust funds within two weeks, with Massachusetts, Texas and Mr. McConnell’s state of Kentucky close behind. Once those funds run out, the states can borrow money from the federal government, but must repay it within two years.
Delays in delivering benefits, though, are as troubling as the sheer magnitude of the figures. Such problems not only create immediate hardships, like not being able to pay rent or buy food, but also affect the shape of the recovery when the pandemic eases.
One of every five New York City residents has tested positive for antibodies to the coronavirus, according to preliminary results described by Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo on Thursday, suggesting that the virus had spread far more widely than known.
If the pattern holds, the results from random testing of 3,000 people raised the prospect that many New Yorkers — as many as 2.7 million, the governor said — had been unwittingly infected by the virus. Mr. Cuomo added that such an elevated infection rate would seem to show that the death rate was far lower than believed.
While the reliability of some early antibody tests has been questioned, researchers in New York have worked in recent weeks to develop and validate their own antibody tests, with federal approval. State officials believe that accurate antibody testing is a critical tool to help determine when and how to begin restarting the economy and sending people back to work.
The testing in New York is among several efforts around the country to determine how many people may have already been exposed to the virus, beyond those who have tested positive. The results appear to conform with research from Northeastern University that indicated that the virus was circulating by early February in the New York area and other major cities.
The president asserted, without any scientific evidence, at his daily White House briefing on Thursday that sunlight, ultraviolet light and household disinfectants could possibly kill the coronavirus inside the body.
Experts have long warned that ultraviolet lamps can harm humans if used improperly — when the exposure is outside the body, much less inside. The link between ultraviolet light and skin cancer is well established. Bleach and other disinfectants may kill microbes but they also can kill humans if swallowed or if fumes are too powerful. That is why bottles of bleach and other disinfectants carry sharp warnings of ingestion dangers.
The president’s theorizing on Thursday came after a scientist, William N. Bryan, the head of science at the Department of Homeland Security, told reporters at the briefing that the government had tested how sunlight and disinfectants — including bleach and alcohol — could kill the coronavirus on surfaces in as little as 30 seconds.
“Supposing we hit the body with a tremendous — whether it’s ultraviolet or just very powerful light,” Mr. Trump said. “And I think you said that hasn’t been checked, but we’re going to test it?” he added, turning to Mr. Bryan, who had returned to his seat. “And then I said, supposing you brought the light inside the body, either through the skin or some other way.”
Apparently reassured that the tests he was proposing would take place, Mr. Trump then theorized about the possible medical benefits of disinfectants in the fight against the virus.
“And then I see the disinfectant where it knocks it out in a minute — one minute — and is there a way we can do something like that by injection inside, or almost a cleaning?” he asked. “Because you see it gets in the lungs and it does a tremendous number on the lungs, so it would be interesting to check that.”
The White House on Friday sent a corrected briefing transcript, which initially misrepresented a response from Deborah L. Birx, Mr. Trump’s coronavirus response coordinator. In the earlier version, sent Thursday night, after the president suggested treating the coronavirus with light and heat, Dr. Birx is quoted as saying, “That is a treatment.” The corrected version clarified that Dr. Birx actually said, “Not as a treatment.”
Shortly after, the White House also accused news organizations of taking the president’s comments out of context.
“President Trump has repeatedly said that Americans should consult with medical doctors regarding coronavirus treatment, a point that he emphasized again during yesterday’s briefing,” the White House press secretary, Kayleigh McEnany, said in a statement.
“As a global leader in health and hygiene products, we must be clear that under no circumstance should our disinfectant products be administered into the human body (through injection, ingestion or any other route),” the company said. The words “under no circumstance” were highlighted in bold.
Wall Street climbs even as global stocks fall.
Stocks on Wall Street rose in early trading on Friday, even as shares in global markets slipped, as a week of dramatic turns in the financial markets came to a close.
The S&P 500 rose about half a percent in early trading. Shares in Europe were slightly lower, and Asian markets also had a down day.
But the focus among traders in the U.S. this week has been oil prices after the American benchmark for crude crashed into negative territory on Monday — an unprecedented move that broke through the relative calm that had settled over financial markets. On Tuesday, stocks suffered their sharpest drop in three weeks after the dive in oil prices, and even after rebounding slightly the S&P 500 is still on track to end the week with a drop.
Still, stocks are subject to sudden changes in sentiment or reversals in efforts to reopen economies. Economic and corporate data continues to outline the toll the virus has taken on the global economy, and American officials emphasized that recovery would be difficult. On Friday, new data showed that the near-shutdown of the economy has pushed U.S. manufacturing into free-fall.
And even as some companies begin to consider reopening factories, they face opposition in some quarters. For example, the United Automobile Workers union said on Thursday that it was opposed to companies restarting auto production next month, saying it was not yet safe for its members to return to work.
Oil prices continued to find a footing, climbing slightly. Still, they remain near historical lows amid concerns about oversupply.
In January, a mystery illness swept through a call center in a skyscraper in Chicago. Close to 30 people in one department alone had symptoms — dry, deep coughs and fevers they could not shake. When they gradually returned to work after taking sick days, they sat in their cubicles looking wan and tired.
“I’ve started to think it was the coronavirus,” said Julie Parks, a 63-year-old employee who was among the sick. “I may have had it, but I can’t be sure.”
The revelation this week that a death in the United States in early February was the result of the virus has significantly altered the understanding of how early the virus may have been circulating in the country. Researchers now believe that hidden outbreaks were creeping through cities like Boston, Chicago, New York and Seattle in January and February, weeks earlier than previously known.
The retroactive search is happening on many levels. People who had suffered dreadful bouts with flulike illnesses are now wondering if it was the virus. Doctors are thinking back to unexplained cases. Medical examiners are poring over their records looking for possible misdiagnosed deaths. And local politicians are demanding investigations.
“I think it was here long before we knew it,” said Brian Gustafson, a coroner in Rock Island County, Ill. “That’s the only logical thing I can think of.”
Included in Mr. Gustafson’s suspicions of an undercount: himself.
Thousands of inmates have been freed across the country in an effort to slow the virus’s spread behind bars, and advocates have filed lawsuits seeking the release many more incarcerated people as outbreaks in the nation’s jails continue to grow.
But as more inmates have walked free, the releases have prompted a growing backlash.
“It’s a slap in the face,” said Tracy Fehrenbacher, who recently learned of the release of the man charged in connection with her daughter’s death in a hit-and-run.
The debate over who should be let out has become fierce in some places. In Texas, Gov. Greg Abbott issued an executive order barring the release of some inmates, arguing that it “would not only gravely threaten public safety, but would also hinder efforts to cope with the Covid-19 disaster.”
Many opponents have pointed to Florida, where a Tampa man was accused of shooting and killing someone the day after he and more than 160 other inmates were freed from Hillsborough County jails last month.
Releasing inmates carries risks, acknowledged Miriam Krinsky, the executive director of Fair and Just Prosecution, a national network of progressive prosecutors. But leaving things the way they are would cause even more harm, she said. More inmates and employees would be infected in crowded facilities, and because of the high turnover rate in local jails, would then carry the disease into the community.
“Doing nothing is going to ensure that there will be tens of thousands of additional deaths,” she said.
Anxious governors have been clamoring for more federal help, saying that their budgets are being stretched to the breaking point and that their revenues are collapsing as they pour resources into health care while their economies are shut down. But the latest measure contained no new state aid, and Senator Mitch McConnell, the majority leader, alarmed and angered state officials this week when he said he wanted to approach the next round of pandemic legislation more deliberately.
Rather than looking for handouts, Mr. McConnell said, the states should consider filing for bankruptcy. His aides threw fuel on the fire in a news release that said the Senate leader was opposed to “blue state bailouts,” suggesting it was Democratic-leaning states that were seeking the money to take care of problems caused by fiscal mismanagement.
“That’s how you’re going to bring this national economy back?” asked an incredulous Mr. Cuomo, who called Mr. McConnell irresponsible and reckless. “You want to see that market fall through the cellar? Let New York State declare bankruptcy.”
Republicans on Capitol Hill say they believe that Mr. McConnell, who opposed new state aid in talks that produced the most recent measure, was trying to reassure restive conservatives that he would not give in easily on more funding in coming talks after Congress had already allocated about $2.7 trillion in deficit spending in response to the emergency. But Mr. McConnell faces significant obstacles if he intends to block the aid, given the extent of bipartisan support for more state relief.
Our lives have been forever changed by the pandemic. Hundreds of thousands of people around the world have died. Millions in the United States alone have lost their jobs.
Though the outbreak was declared a pandemic just over a month ago, many of us are already feeling nostalgic for our lives before the virus went global. We asked you to send us photographs and videos that captured those moments of normalcy. We received nearly 700 submissions from all over the world — including from Milan; Mumbai, India; Paris; Wuhan, China; and places across the United States.
Nearly every submission expressed a sense of gratitude and appreciation for the time before the pandemic. Many also conveyed worry and a longing to feel a sense of safety and normalcy again.
Even as the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control announced that the first wave of virus transmission had “passed its peak” in 20 members of the European Union, Britain was still struggling to get ahead of the virus.
The nation was behind many others in Europe in putting in place restrictive social distancing measures, with the British government frequently saying it was “guided by the science.” With the country approaching 20,000 deaths, the Times correspondents Mark Landler and Stephen Castle took a look at the secretive scientific group advising the government.
As the British government comes under mounting criticism for its response to the coronavirus — one that has left Britain vying with Italy and Spain as the worst hit countries in Europe — Prime Minister Boris Johnson and his aides have defended themselves by saying they are “guided by the science.”
The trouble is, nobody knows what the science is.
The government’s influential Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies — known by its soothing acronym, SAGE — operates as a virtual black box. Its list of members is secret, its meetings are closed, its recommendations are private and the minutes of its deliberations are published much later, if at all.
Yet officials invoke SAGE’s name endlessly without ever explaining how it comes up with its advice — or even who these scientists are.
That lack of transparency has become a point of contention, as officials struggle to explain why they waited until late March to shift from a laissez-faire approach to the virus to the stricter measures adopted by other European countries. Critics say the delay may have worsened a death toll now surging past 20,000, and they fault the government for leaving people in the dark about why it first chose this riskier path.
Reporting was contributed by Alan Blinder, Eileen Sullivan, William J. Broad, Sarah Mervosh, John Eligon, Dan Levin, J. David Goodman, Michael Rothfeld, Julie Bosman, Patricia Cohen, Richard Fausset, Amy Harmon, Carl Hulse, Rick Rojas, Thomas Fuller and Marc Santora.