The coronavirus pandemic has pushed the economy into a slowdown of unknown severity. It could be a long, drawn-out recession, or a sharp dip followed by a swift recovery.

The stock market, which has soared 23 percent from its low, is signaling that many investors expect a quick rebound.

But that optimism will be tested over the coming weeks when large companies report their quarterly financial results for the first three months of the year and predict the pandemic’s effect on their business.

“Earnings season,” as it’s known on Wall Street, usually fascinates only professional investors. And corporate executives, always reluctant to discuss problems, may be even less forthcoming about them now. But with millions of jobs on the line and businesses shuttering every day, this deluge of company information, and any light it sheds, will take on a new importance.

Investors are already anticipating several epicenters of economic pain. Oil companies, airlines, hotels, restaurants, retailers and automakers will report steep losses and issue forecasts for the coming months. Ford Motor, for example, said on Monday that it would lose $600 million in the first quarter — not counting some expenses like interest and taxes — down from a $2.4 billion profit in the first three months of 2019.

Companies in these sectors are furloughing or laying off employees. It’s here that government aid could prove decisive — and executives, speaking on publicly accessible earnings calls, may reveal whether they will apply for assistance from the Treasury Department and the Federal Reserve, and how much.

Some companies may be hesitant to take a big bailout. Giving the government stock in return for its financial support could rattle shareholders, who might fear that the government stake would reduce their ownership share of the company. But companies that spurn the government’s help or take too little may later regret it if their fortunes deteriorate further. Executives at Boeing, for example, have sent mixed messages about whether it needs help from the government. The aerospace giant was already in trouble before the pandemic because of the grounding of the 737 Max.

And while accepting a government bailout could help, there is no guarantee that executives will maintain hiring at pre-pandemic levels. Some types of aid might come with commitments to keep people employed, but only until the end of September. United Airlines, for example, has suggested that layoffs may come after September if the economy stays in a deep funk.

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