Case have declined and deaths have slowed, but it’s a delicate moment to reopen.

The number of new coronavirus cases confirmed in the United States has steadily declined in recent days. In New York, the figure has dropped over the last month. The numbers have also plunged in hard-hit Massachusetts and Rhode Island, and some states, including Vermont, Hawaii and Alaska, are reporting few new cases at all.

But that progress is tenuous and uncertain.

Only about 3 percent of the population has been tested. More than 20,000 new cases are identified most days. And almost every day this past week, more than 1,000 Americans died from the virus. The total death toll is now in excess of 87,000.

That has left the nation at a perilous moment, beginning to reopen businesses and ease social distancing measures despite the risk of a resurgence.

“We’re seeing a decline; undoubtedly, that is something good to see,” said Jeffrey Shaman, an epidemiologist at Columbia University. “But what we are also seeing is a lot of places right on the edge of controlling the disease.”

Reopenings might ease the nation’s intense economic pain: More than 36 million people have filed unemployment claims in the past two months, and on Friday the Commerce Department reported that retail sales fell a record 16.4 percent in April.

In Arizona, which began reopening its economy without seeing a sustained drop in cases, infection numbers have kept rising. More than 13,100 cases had been identified as of Friday. In Alabama, case numbers have grown again since the state began to reopen. And in Minnesota, cases around St. Cloud and Minneapolis have surged over the past two weeks.

When the House of Representatives acted on Friday to allow remote voting and virtual hearings, the coronavirus pandemic succeeded in doing what Philadelphia’s yellow fever outbreak of 1793, the Spanish influenza of 1918, the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks and generations of agitators for institutional change never could: untethering Congress from its mandate to come together physically.

With Friday’s party-line vote, 217 to 189, as long as the public health emergency persists, lawmakers from Alaska to Florida need not leave the safety of their homes to question witnesses at a hearing, sign subpoenas or vote on legislation.

Democrats who control the chamber have stressed that they are simply trying to find a way for the House — a coequal branch of government and, they argue, a crucial counterweight to President Trump — to perform its basic functions while congregating in Washington is a dire health risk.

Republicans, almost reflexively, are opposed to the changes and have denounced them as an unconstitutional power grab. But beyond the partisan considerations, a broad cross-section of congressional scholars, parliamentary experts and former officials warn that the decision could have unintended and long-lasting consequences.

Michael Stern, a former senior legal counsel to the House who writes about congressional legal issues, said the institution was built on the understanding that its members would gather. “There is a pretty strong argument that if you cut that out, you are losing something,” he added. “And you may not know how significant it is until it’s gone.”

For New Yorkers, a refreshing dip in the ocean at Coney Island has long been a staple of summer and a vital source of relief from the heat.

The Ramones sang of the pleasures of Rockaway Beach in Queens, and sandy salsa dancers have flocked for years to Orchard Beach in the Bronx, a stretch known to some as the Puerto Rican Riviera.

But those beloved beaches, usually some of the region’s most crowded, will not be the same this summer.

Mayor Bill de Blasio said on Friday that opening New York City’s 14 miles of public beaches was “not in the cards” by Memorial Day weekend, when they have traditionally opened for swimming, and that they would stay closed until officials were confident they could be used without a serious risk of spreading the virus.

Mr. de Blasio’s announcement came the same day Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo said that all state-run beaches in New York would be open for swimming by the Memorial Day weekend, with restrictions in place to ensure social distancing.

The governor made his decision in concert with his counterparts in New Jersey, Connecticut and Delaware, who offered similar announcements.

Former President Barack Obama is set to give two virtual commencement speeches to graduating college and high school seniors on Saturday in his first public addresses to a national audience during the pandemic.

“I’ve always loved joining commencements — the culmination of years of hard work and sacrifice,” Mr. Obama posted on Twitter this month. “Even if we can’t get together in person this year, Michelle and I am excited to celebrate the nationwide Class of 2020 and recognize this milestone with you and your loved ones.”

Mr. Obama’s words are expected to draw much interest at a time when President Trump has received immense scrutiny for his handling of the coronavirus. Mr. Obama has generally avoided publicly criticizing Mr. Trump, but he called the Trump administration’s response to the pandemic “anemic and spotty” in a private call last week.

The virus has dashed many graduation traditions, so political leaders and celebrities have stepped in celebrate graduates as they enter a world shaped by uncertainty, infection fears and economic instability.

The complaint came in last month from a resident of Kingston, a city in the Hudson Valley: A local barbershop was still performing haircuts, in violation of New York’s emergency shutdown orders.

Two days later, a buildings investigator went out to investigate. La Lima Barbershop at 678 Broadway was dark. Three more visits, on April 13, 17, and 19, turned up the same result.

The complaint was left unresolved until this week, when the proprietor of the shop, Joseph LaLima, was hospitalized for the coronavirus.

He had never stopped cutting hair. But he was doing it in the privacy of his home — in the back of the shop.

“He said do not open up your shops, barbershops, beauty parlors, nail salons, tattoo parlors,” Mr. LaLima said on Friday, referring to the governor. “So I didn’t.”

Reporting was contributed by Julie Bosman, Audra D.S. Burch, John Eligon, Nicholas Fandos, Amy Harmon, Corey Kilgannon, Sarah Maslin Nir and Mitch Smith.

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