HONG KONG — Thousands of protesters in Hong Kong defied police orders on Wednesday as they took to the streets and gathered in shopping malls to voice their outrage at the Chinese Communist Party’s moves to tighten the grip over the semiautonomous region.

Riot police officers fired pepper balls into crowds in Central, a business district, at lunchtime, and tackled people who sought to protest in Causeway Bay, a shopping area. They herded groups of protesters and made them sit on sidewalks behind police lines.

“I think maybe this is the last chance we have to fight back,” said Sheldon Liu, a 20-year-old college student who joined the march in Causeway Bay. “Of course I hope these laws will not pass, but I feel it is impossible to stop.”

The protest on Wednesday was timed to coincide with when the city’s lawmakers were scheduled to debate legislation that would threaten a fine of up to about $6,500 and three years in prison for anyone found to be misusing or insulting the Chinese national anthem, called “March of the Volunteers.”

The demonstrators had earlier said they would protest outside the city’s legislative chambers, but their plans were thwarted by the police who deployed officers in vast numbers to the area to prevent any unauthorized access.

At midday, groups gathered to sing and chant at a mall in the Causeway Bay neighborhood. Police officers stopped some as they took to the streets, but a few thousand more briefly marched down main roads on Hong Kong Island.

They were met by the police, who sent them scattering down side streets.

Protesters had also called for a general strike on Wednesday to express their dismay with the new national security legislation. Carol Ng, the chairwoman of the Hong Kong Confederation of Trade Unions, an umbrella group of pro-democracy labor groups, said that given the short notice, she expected the number of participants to be lower than in strikes held last year.

Instead, she called it a “warm-up” for future protest actions by unions and workers who saw the new national security legislation as a violation of the “one country, two systems” policy that was meant to protect Hong Kong’s status within China.

“If you breach your agreement in the first place, do you think people will be silenced?” she said. “If you get even harsher toward us, we will get even stronger and resist.”

Resistance against symbols of Chinese power has only grown fiercer since the protests that erupted last year following the proposal of another piece of contentious legislation that would have allowed extraditions to mainland China. The proposal was later withdrawn.

Pro-democracy lawmakers in turn have accused establishment lawmakers of illegitimately seizing control of the committee in charge of considering the legislation. Twice this month, escalating tensions between the two camps resulted in scuffles between lawmakers. In one instance, at least four pro-democracy lawmakers were carried or dragged off the floor of the Legislative Council.

Passage of the bill would amount to a significant, if largely symbolic, setback to rights activists and pro-democracy politicians who say the law could be used to further suppress free expression.

“By criminalizing any random thing considered an ‘insult’ to China’s national anthem, the authorities are taking a huge step back from freedom of expression in Hong Kong,” said Phil Robertson, deputy Asia director for Human Rights Watch. “Stopping people from criticizing songs and symbols of China is the prelude for Beijing to impose a draconian national security law on the city.”

Elaine Yu contributed reporting.

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