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The spread of the virus through the food and grocery industry is expected to cause disruptions in production and distribution of certain products as panicked shoppers test supply networks as never before.

Industry leaders acknowledge shortages could increase, but they insist it is more of an inconvenience than a major problem. People will have enough to eat; they just may not have the usual variety. The food supply remains robust, they say, with hundreds of millions of pounds of meat in cold storage.

“You might not get what you want when you want it,” said Christine McCracken, a meat industry analyst at Rabobank in New York. “Consumers like to have a lot of different choices, and the reality is in the short term, we just don’t have the labor to make that happen.”

Several meat manufacturers have had to shut down after outbreaks. Smithfield Foods on Sunday shut down a plant that produces about 5 percent of the country’s pork after the plant saw hundreds of coronavirus cases.

The food-processing industry is uniquely vulnerable to an outbreak. Employees often work shoulder to shoulder, and many companies have granted sick leave only to employees who test positive for the coronavirus. That potentially leaves on the job thousands of other infected workers who haven’t been tested, hastening the infection’s spread.

“Labor is going to be the biggest thing that can break,” said Karan Girotra, a supply-chain expert at Cornell University. “If large numbers of people start getting sick in rural America, all bets are off.”

At the other end of the supply chain, grocery stores are also dealing with increasing illnesses among workers, as well as absences by those afraid to go in to work.

Laborers who were once considered unskilled are now “essential employees,” even heroes to some, because they are providing the nation with food and other crucial supplies. How employers and public health officials protect these workers has become a critical issue.

New guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention state that essential workers who may have been exposed to the coronavirus may continue to work provided they are asymptomatic, wear a mask at all times for 14 days after their last exposure and have their temperature taken before entering the workplace.

Labor advocates like Marcy Goldstein-Gelb, the co-executive director of the National Council for Occupational Safety and Health, say the new guidelines may encourage employers to pressure workers to return to their jobs too soon, often without adequate protection or pay.

“It’s a complete reversal of the policy that the C.D.C. has for the public,” Ms. Goldstein-Gelb said. “It disregards the fact that, right now, workers are dying every day needlessly in unconscionable numbers.”

Nearly 3,000 workers of the 1.3 million people represented by the United Food and Commercial Workers International Union have been directly affected by the virus as of Monday — whether through infection, quarantine, hospitalizations and those awaiting test results — and 30 had died, according to the union’s research.

Grocery stores are among the remaining high-risk transmission points for the disease now that many other commercial businesses have been closed, but many workers and customers do not have masks and people can remain in close contact with one another. Workers are imploring customers to take more care while in stores. They say many have been throwing used gloves and wipes in carts and on floors for employees to pick up. Many customers are still browsing with their hands and not their eyes and blaming workers for lack of goods on shelves.

Real estate is a cheek-by-jowl business, methodical by design, lumbering until the final, crowded contract signing. The coronavirus pandemic has exposed that weakness, and practically overnight, the industry has been forced to rethink the entire model.

The number of video tours of listings from March 15 to March 30 was almost twice as many as in the two-and-a-half months prior, according to StreetEasy, the listing site. But virtual tours are a poor substitute for the real thing, said Frederick Warburg Peters, the chief executive of Warburg Realty.

Those who brave the market now could get some of the best deals in years, with near-record low mortgage rates. Prices in New York real estate have been sliding since the peak of the market around 2016, and buyers in contract are already aggressively renegotiating prices, agents said.

Stay-at-home orders have disrupted more than in-person showings. Every part of the home-buying process has gotten more complicated: moving, appraisals and signing the physical stacks of paperwork still required by law to close a deal.

Because New York still requires “wet ink” — original signatures on important documents — lawyers and title agents have had to be creative. Closings can now be held, in part, in two idling cars in a parking lot, with one party signing papers and passing them through the passenger side window of the recipient.

U.S. stocks slipped on Monday, a retreat that followed Wall Street’s best weeks in decades, as investors weighed the implications of a deal to cut oil production and awaited the release of quarterly earnings reports from corporate America.

The S&P 500 fell about 1 percent. Major European markets were closed for the Easter holiday.

Investors on Monday were sifting through the implications of a number of developments over the long weekend. The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries and other major oil countries said on Sunday that they would trim output to put a floor under crude oil prices, and shares of energy companies like Marathon Oil and Apache Corp. were higher even as crude oil futures were slightly lower.

Monday’s decline came after the S&P 500 had rallied more than 12 percent last week, as investors took heart in signs of progress in the fight against the coronavirus and expansive new measures from the Federal Reserve to help ensure that companies and local governments can have access to credit markets.

But the recent optimism will be tested as big companies report earnings for the first three months of the year.

Analysts expect that S&P 500 companies will report a 10 percent drop in profits for the first quarter of 2020, compared to the same period last year. But that will only be the start of a prolonged period of declining profits — known as an earnings recession — that is expected to last for at least a year, according to data from Refinitiv.

Earnings for the second quarter are expected to be even worse, dropping more than 20 percent. But if commentary from companies about the coming quarter are particularly dire, those expectations could be revised sharply lower, potentially setting off another stumble in a stock market that has shown signs of stabilizing.

A rally in shares of e-commerce giant Amazon and a jump in shares of Netflix helped lead the technology heavy Nasdaq index higher.

Ford Motor Company and 3M said they would begin producing powered air-purifying respirators at a Ford facility near Flat Rock, Mich., the latest in a series of corporate partnerships that America’s biggest automakers have forged to manufacture medical gear.

In a call with reporters on Monday, the companies said they initially planned to produce 100,000 or more respirators and were “focusing” on a time frame of late April, May and June. The products would be distributed through 3M’s sales network in the United States, they said.

Mike Kesti, the global technical director of 3M’s personal safety division, said 3M factories had been running full out since January, and that the partnership with Ford would provide an “infusion of fresh energy.”

Ford said it was also collaborating with Joyson Safety Systems to produce reusable gowns from airbag materials, as well as providing manufacturing support to help Thermo Fisher Scientific expand its production of coronavirus testing kits. It had also begun manufacturing face masks for internal use and pursuing certification for their medical use.

Ford has already begun producing face shields at its Plymouth-Michigan plant, and is planning to begin manufacturing ventilators in collaboration with GE Healthcare beginning next week.

SoftBank warned investors on Monday that the value of its tech fund may have dropped as much as $16.7 billion over the last fiscal year, a surprise announcement that came as the coronavirus rocked a portfolio already weakened by losses on big bets like WeWork.

SoftBank has used its $100 billion purse to make huge wagers on companies like WeWork and Uber that it thought could fundamentally remake industries, drive out competitors and generate gigantic profits.

But in a statement posted to its website, SoftBank said that it anticipated that the fund would record a loss of 1.8 trillion yen (about $16.6 billion) for the fiscal year that ended in March “due to the deteriorating market environment.”

The loss will be partially offset by revenue from SoftBank’s other businesses, with the company saying it expects to end the year 1.35 trillion yen in the red — its first annual loss in 15 years.

  • Condé Nast, the most glittering of all magazine publishers, will cut salaries and reduce work hours. The salaries of those earning $100,000 or more — just under half the company — will be reduced 10 to 20 percent for five months, starting in May, according to a memo from Roger J. Lynch, the chief executive. The salaries of executives in the senior management team, including Anna Wintour, will be cut 20 percent. In addition, Mr. Lynch said he would forgo half his salary. And the company plans to establish three- or four-day workweeks for some employees in markets such as Britain and the European Union.

  • Smithfield Foods said Sunday that its Sioux Falls, S.D., plant, one of the nation’s largest pork-processing factories, would remain shut indefinitely. Gov. Kristi Noem of South Dakota said on Saturday that nearly 240 workers at the plant had tested positive for the virus — about half of the state’s cases. The shuttered plant produces about 4 percent to 5 percent of the country’s pork, Smithfield said.

  • The day after oil-producing nations agreed to the largest-ever production cut, oil prices briefly jumped at the start of trading but eventually lost their gains. West Texas Intermediate, the main U.S. benchmark, fell about 2 percent to $22.65 a barrel. As large as the cut is — 9.7 million barrels a day, beginning in May, reflecting about 10 percent of global output during normal times — many traders and analysts have said it is insufficient and too late to avoid a huge glut of supplies in the current quarter.

  • Ford Motor said on Monday that it expects to report a loss of $600 million before interest and taxes in the first quarter as its wholesales of vehicles fell 21 percent compared to a year earlier. The company reported a profit of $2.4 billion before interest and taxes in the first quarter of 2019.

Reporting was contributed by David Waldstein, Stefanos Chen, Karen Weise, Ana Swanson, Ben Dooley, Stanley Reed, Niraj Chokshi, Edmund Lee, Vanessa Friedman, David Gelles, Lauren Leatherby, David Yaffe-Bellany, Vikas Bajaj, Michael Corkery, Matt Phillips, Mohammed Hadi, Clifford Krauss, Katie Robertson and Carlos Tejada.

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